human trafficking in thailand statistics 2018
China, Japan, Malaysia, and Thailand are destinations from neighboring countries. Some victims continued to report reluctance to participate in prosecutions due to fear of detention, an inadequate understanding of the Thai legal process, language barriers, and preferring repatriation over lengthy shelter stays and judicial processes. Opinions expressed in articles and other materials are those of the authors; they do not necessarily reflect IMF policy. Sources below. In Southeast Asia and elsewhere, nontraditional security threats have two defining features: they are transnational and complex. Two international agreements regard human trafficking as a transnational crime: the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, also known as the Palermo Protocol. The government continued to screen for trafficking indicators among fishermen returning to Thailand and on fishing vessels in Thai waters, as well as among workers in seafood processing facilities. Thailand has enacted several laws against human trafficking.  The Ministry of Labor (MOL) drafted legislation to more clearly define forced labor in Thai law and create additional protections for victims; in 2018 the government sought input from the public on this draft law. Some parents or brokers force children from Thailand, Cambodia and Burma to sell flowers, beg, or work in domestic service in urban areas. The Department of Labor Protection and Welfare (DLPW) organized training for 335 law enforcement officers on forced labor, emphasizing non-physical indicators of trafficking. MELY CABALLERO-ANTHONY is associate professor and head of the Centre for Non-Traditional Security at the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Victims, not perpetrators, are often the ones who suffer physical abuse and prosecution for illegal migration. Although the government continued to increase labor inspections in high-risk industries, inspections resulted in disproportionately few identified victims and criminal investigations. Thailand rescued a record 1,807 trafficking victims last year, up from 622 in 2018, the government said this month. MSDHS increased the number of available hotline interpreters to 68 in 2017. Human trafficking not only involves sex and labor, but people are also trafficked for organ harvesting. Among these nontraditional security threats, human trafficking looms large, especially in Southeast Asia, where natural disasters and military conflicts lead to displaced people and refugees, who are particularly vulnerable to this heinous crime. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and, with respect to sex trafficking, commensurate with penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Human trafficking is a crime in itself but it is rarely the end goal for the perpetrators. These shocking figures are only estimates, since accurate data are difficult to obtain, largely because human trafficking is underreported, underdetected, and thus underprosecuted. They also arise from nonmilitary dangers such as climate change, natural disasters, infectious diseases, and transnational crimes. Some remain at sea for several years, are paid very little or irregularly, work as much as 18 to 20 hours per day for seven days a week, and are reportedly threatened, physically beaten, drugged to work longer, and even killed for becoming ill, attempting to escape, or disobeying orders. Playing next. Drugs 3. In 2017 the multidisciplinary teams of the CCCIF inspected 358 on-land seafood processing workplaces and found 142 cases of law and labor violations. Traffickers, including some registered and unregistered labor brokers of Thai and foreign nationalities, bring foreign victims into Thailand through both formal migration and smuggling routes and serve as intermediaries between job-seekers and employers. In addition, NGOs and international organizations widely reported the government did not adequately enforce the application of minimum wages in sectors with a minimum wage and lacked legislation to require minimum wages in other sectors, especially in those sectors with high employment of migrant workers. It remains largely a hidden crime, since victims are reluctant to seek help for fear of intimidation and reprisals. Human Trafficking, 2018 1 . Menu. Animal … Armed conflict makes children even more vulnerable. These migrants tend to take illicit and dangerous routes, making them easy prey for criminal networks. Victims are often trafficked into Thailand through established migration routes from neighbouring states with significantly lower levels of socio-economic development. Contact the National Human Trafficking Hotline. Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU Final report - 2018 Lancaster University The cabinet subsequently approved an amended decree in March 2018, adding protections for workers such as prohibiting the confiscation of identity documents, banning sub-contracted employees, and easing the ability for workers to change employers, which remained widespread concerns during the reporting period. The Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC) is the first global data hub on human trafficking, with data contributed by organizations from around the world. Civil society and government officials expressed concerns that due to varying levels of enforcement at PIPO centers, some boat captains chose ports where inspections and enforcement were weaker. The 2008 anti-trafficking law, as amended, criminalized sex and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of up to 12 years imprisonment and a maximum fine of 1.2 million baht ($36,810) for offenses involving an adult victim, and up to 20 years imprisonment and 2 million baht ($61,350) for those involving a child victim. Through government-to-government formal migration channels, the government facilitated 20,068 Thais to obtain employment abroad in 2017. NGOs reported a decline in the prevalence of child begging following the passage of the Beggar Control Act during the previous reporting period, which provided for health and social services to beggars, including trafficking victims. By Aashna Sawhney – Staff Writer. Thailand’s Trafficking in Persons 2014 Country Report. Data were collected on 43 human-trafficking prevention education programs for youths across the state. Following criticisms from stakeholders, the government delayed implementation of the decree until June 2018 to seek stakeholder input on amendments of the decree, as well as to allow migrant workers more time to obtain the necessary documents for legal employment under the decree. As reported over the past five years, Thailand is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. The 610 sex and labor trafficking victims whom the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) reported assisting in government and NGO shelters (401 in 2018), included 134 Thai and 476 foreign victims, and 170 victims of sex trafficking and 440 victims of labor trafficking. In addition, in March 2018, the government convicted four police officers who solicited bribes in exchange for not pressing charges against those involved in the exploitation of the Rohingya migrants; they were each sentenced to five years imprisonment. The government facilitated the establishment of 14 service centers in Thailand, in coordination with the governments of Burma, Cambodia, and Laos, to conduct nationality verification for undocumented migrant workers. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. The government increased efforts to prevent trafficking. MSDHS trained and registered 67 additional interpreters in 2017, bringing the total number of available interpreters to 251. Follow. Police utilized DNA testing to determine the relationship between child victims of forced begging and the adults accompanying them, and the government prosecuted parents from neighboring countries who brought their children to Thailand more than once to engage in begging. Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. This document (pdf) complements the international anti-trafficking framework. Official complicity continued to impede anti-trafficking efforts, and there were anecdotal reports that officials arrested, detained, and deported some potential victims for crimes committed as a direct result of being subjected to human trafficking. Malaysia has been a destination for victims from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. In 2017, TICAC investigated 41 allegations of online child exploitation (24 in 2016), including 18 trafficking cases (four in 2016) which resulted in eight trafficking prosecutions. Women, men, boys, and girls from Thailand, other Southeast Asian countries, Sri Lanka, Russia, Uzbekistan, and some African countries are subjected to labor and sex trafficking in Thailand. 2018. Thai men and women who migrate overseas also rely on registered and unregistered labor brokers to facilitate acquisition of low-skilled contract work or agricultural labor and are sometimes subjected to conditions of forced labor and debt bondage. In one case, the government sentenced a boat captain to four years imprisonment and ordered him to pay 450,000 baht ($13,800) in restitution to the victims. Similarly, there must be greater effort to address the needs of victims. Then, the Japanese occupation during … 2018. The National Human Trafficking Hotline maintains one of the most extensive data sets on the issue of human trafficking in the United States. UK trafficking statistics. Beyond Southeast Asia, the Bali Process was set up in 2002 as a platform for dialogue among countries in the Asia-Pacific. Finally, victims of trafficking receive inadequate protection and assistance. Previously, NGOs could operate shelters for trafficking victims without government financial support or oversight. The government operated three post-arrival centers to assist migrant workers entering Thailand through these formal channels, as well as 10 migrant workers assistance centers; these centers assisted 345,204 workers in 2017 (105,647 in August 2016 to February 2017) by providing resources in multiple languages, including for trafficking awareness, and assisting the migrant workers to register with the government. This included 5.6 million baht ($171,780) provided to 760 victims from its anti-trafficking fund (5.8 million baht ($177,910) to 648 victims in 2016). The focus on criminalization and prosecution may have increased awareness, but more should be done to prevent trafficking through effective law enforcement and efforts to educate vulnerable groups about its dangers. For ASEAN, human trafficking has been a constant thorn in the sides of its governments. The late 1700s to the 1850s witnessed an influx in the number of Chinese labor workers and sex workers coming to Thailand. Snapshot of Thailand’s Key Efforts to Combat Human Trafficking and Forced Labor (As of August 2014) TIP 2013 country report Many Southeast Asian victims migrate in search of paid jobs but wind up forced to labor in fishing, agriculture, construction, and domestic work, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). 2017. More than 85 percent of victims were trafficked from within the region, according to the Nepal has long been used for human t In an effort to improve the quality of trafficking prosecutions across the country, the government operated a sub-unit within the OAG trafficking division to provide guidance and mentoring for provincial law enforcement, prosecutors, and other court officials. ANNUAL REPORT. However, the government did not meet the minimum standards in several key areas. Some officials failed to recognize non-physical indicators of trafficking, such as non-payment of wages and document confiscation. Some trafficking victims in the fishing sector had difficulty returning home due to isolated workplaces, unpaid wages, and the lack of legitimate identity documents or safe means to travel. 50,000. As state participation has grown, the UCR Program has seen an increase in data submissions. The UNODC stresses the need to help victims overcome the trauma and stigma associated with trafficking and to build trust in law enforcement, so that victims seek help and cooperate in prosecuting traffickers. Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves using force, fraud, or coercion to … The government identified 455 victims in 2017 (824 in 2016), including 336 sex trafficking victims (335 in 2016) and 119 labor trafficking victims (489 in 2016). The United Nations has reported that armed groups in the Philippines, including Moro rebels and communists, recruit children, at times through force, for combat and noncombat roles. Globally, in 2019, there were only a total of 11,841 prosecutions (down from 11,096 in 2018) and 9,548 convictions (up from 7,481 in 2018). The specialized anti-trafficking law enforcement divisions continued to complete trafficking investigations and prosecutions more quickly than in previous reporting periods; courts completed the majority of cases heard in 2017 within six months. Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU Final report - 2018 Lancaster University. In 2016, the Japanese government identified 50 trafficking victims, of whom 37 were victims of sexual exploitation, nine were forced to work as hostesses, and four were victims of labour exploitation, of whom two were forced to work as manual labourers and one was forced to work i… In addition to trainings for law enforcement, the government trained more than 1,400 multidisciplinary team members, labor inspectors, social workers, and interpreters on victim identification and referral systems. Thai nationals are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking in Thailand and in countries in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The government increased the number of PIPO inspection teams from 64 to 85. Thai, Burmese, Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Indonesian men and boys are subject to forced labor on Thai and foreign-owned fishing boats. According to some estimates, human trafficking is now one of the world’s most lucrative organized crimes, generating more than $150 billion a year. Top 10 Human Trafficking Cities in the World in 2018 Published on January 5, 2019 at 9:39 am by Bojana Petković in Lists , News Share Tweet Email The law protected victims from prosecution for acts committed as a result of being subjected to trafficking; however, flaws in the government's implementation of victim identification procedures and its efforts to arrest and deport immigration violators increased victims' risk of being re-victimized and treated as criminals. Support is … The government demonstrated increasing efforts compared to the previous reporting period; therefore Thailand was upgraded to Tier 2. Provincial employment offices provided training to more than 3,500 of these workers prior to their departure and MOL screened travel documents for departing workers at 25 checkpoints throughout the country; of 64,602 workers departing Thailand in 2017, 729 were prevented from traveling. December 21, 2018 . In October 2017, the government issued regulations to provide for government oversight of NGO shelters while making available the technical support of MSDHS and the opportunity for NGOs to apply for funds from the MSDHS anti-trafficking fund. However, the government increased efforts to address official complicity. Forced marriages of young women and girls are rampant in the Mekong region of Cambodia, China, Myanmar, and Vietnam. In one prosecution completed in 2017, the government convicted 62 offenders, including 11 government officials, involved in the trafficking of Rohingya migrants; it sentenced convicted officials to prison terms ranging from 14 to 79 years. ... Group on Statistics on Crime and Criminal Justice and in consultation with the EU Network of National Rapporteurs or Equiva- There are reports that some brokers and employers continue to confiscate identity documents. At the subregional level, the Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative Against Trafficking also closely follows the Palermo Protocol framework and has led to several bilateral agreements aimed at greater cooperation between states in the Greater Mekong region. Still, huge challenges remain, notably the serious lack of accurate and reliable information on the scale and scope of trafficking, which makes it difficult to measure the effectiveness of anti-trafficking policies. human trafficking is underreported, underdetected, and thus underprosecuted. Two-thirds of its victims, or 25 million people, are in East Asia and the Pacific, according to the Walk Free Foundation’s Global Slavery Index 2016 (pdf). 2018 Statistics . The government continued to allow more adult trafficking victims the ability to travel, work, and reside outside shelters as provided by Thailand's anti-trafficking law. The discovery of mass graves of trafficking victims along the border between Malaysia and Thailand in 2015 is gruesome evidence of such collusion; a Thai general and police officers were among 62 people convicted of human trafficking and other crimes connected with the case, according to news reports.
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